In the name of God

Mojdeh Pergas Deniz Trading Company of Jam Traders

The main branch of Mojdeh Pergas Deniz Bazarganan Jam Trading Company is to buy and sell all kinds of livestock and poultry feed and to communicate closely with the consumer units of this type of product while maintaining their interests.

Feeding livestock and poultry

Part II
Comparative digestion in ruminants and non-ruminants:
As we mentioned in the previous chapter, food is usually made up of biomolecules that make up macromolecules such as proteins, fats, and polysaccharides. To bleed. Instead, they must be modified and broken down into simpler materials (breakdown) to be absorbed into the blood and lymph. The process of breaking down food components is called digestion. And after digestion, the digested material is absorbed from the wall of the gastrointestinal tract (Absorption). In order to perform the digestion operation, specialized organs have been provided in the animals that perform the digestion and absorption operation with the help of each other and by performing various mechanical and chemical operations. Some animals (ruminants) have a microbial digestion in addition to the mechanical and chemical parts.
In order to study more accurately, we first examine the digestion in single-stomached animals and then examine the characteristics of digestion in ruminant animals.

Digestion in the pancreas:

The gastrointestinal tract in monocotyledonous animals includes the mouth, the esophagus, the stomach, the small intestine, the large intestine, the larynx, and the anus. The liver and pancreas are also responsible for producing digestive milk.

1 - Mouth:

In monocotyledonous animals with teeth in the oral cavity, the first part of digestion begins mechanically by crushing food with the teeth. Chewing makes the food smaller and mixes the food with saliva. Saliva is secreted from the salivary glands (including the parotid glands, submaxillary, and sublingual tongue), with a pH of about 7.3 in single stomachs.
Most saliva (99%) is water. Other salivary constituents include Mucin protein, buffer-forming ions, and the enzyme amylase and the enzyme lysozyme. Salivary saliva lacks amylase.
The enzyme amylase breaks down a small amount of starch-forming amylose in the mouth. The enzyme lysozyme destroys the glucosamine bonds in the bacterial cell wall and kills some of the bacteria in food. Therefore, physical digestion and little chemical digestion are created in the oral cavity.
In single-stomached animals without teeth, mechanical digestion is not performed in the mouth, but saliva is secreted to facilitate the passage of food particles through the mouth. Due to the lack of teeth, the size of food particles for poultry is limited and food passes quickly through the mouth and no digestion is performed in the mouth. For this reason, the taste ability in poultry is very low (24 taste buds versus 9000 taste buds in humans).

2 - Mary:

After food passes through the mouth, it enters the esophagus, which is a tube-like pathway through which food particles are transported from the end of the mouth to the stomach or stratum corneum.

3 - stomach.

In the stomachs of animals, single stomachs of food are chemically digested. The stomach wall has secretory glands that secrete gastric milk.
Gastric milk is one of the two main components of hydrochloric acid and stomach enzymes that are secreted into the stomach in the aqueous environment. The main function of hydrochloric acid is to convert pepsinogen secreted into pepsin. Pepsin breaks the covalent bonds between peptides. The action of pepsin on the bond between aromatic and aromatic amino acids (Tyr, Try, Phe) is more severe than in other peptide bonds. Renin is secreted by gastric cells and coagulates milk proteins. A small number of lipase enzymes are also produced by the stomach. In the poultry, gastric secretion is secreted by the stomach (Preventricalus) and is responsible for breaking down proteins. .
The gizzard, or gastric muscle, is the next organ in the digestive tract of the poultry, which, with its strong muscles and thick mucus, performs physical digestion on food particles and divides large particles into smaller particles.

4 - small intestine.

In single-stomached animals, food enters the small intestine after passing through the stomach or gills (in poultry). Enzymatic digestion is the most important activity in the small intestine. Liver and pancreatic secretions enter the small intestine in the duodenum. The liver secretes bile into the intestines. Bile is made up of sodium and potassium salts along with bile acids, biliverdine dyes, bilirubin, cholesterol, and mucin protein. The main function of bile is to convert the fats in the food into emollients and help activate the enzyme lipase secreted by the pancreas. Bile salts have amphipathic properties and have two parts, the fat-soluble part and the water-soluble part. Monoglycerides and fatty acids dissolve well in these bile salts. In addition to their ability to dissolve fats, bile salts have the ability to form micelles. The compounds in the micelles are arranged so that their polar groups are on the outside of the micelles. The diameter of the micelles is about 30 to 100 A (angstrom).
Twelve fats are first formed with the help of bile salts to form fat emulsion droplets with a diameter of about 5000A.. The lipase secreted from the pancreas then separates the fatty acids from the triglycerides, and the fatty acids, along with the monoglycerides and bile salts, form the micelles. Lipase converts triglycerides to diglycerides and monoglycerides as follows:
Terry glyceride
Mono glyceride
Di glyceride
The pancreas also injects its secretions into the gastrointestinal tract, called the pancreas, in the duodenum. The secretion of pancreatic milk begins with the entry of food into the duodenum. With the presence of acid in the duodenum, the mucosal cells in this part secrete the hormone secretin into the blood, and the secretion hormone circulates through the bloodstream, stimulating the pancreatic cells and releasing bicarbonate into the intestine. Also, the entry of peptides and nutrients from the stomach into the intestine causes the secretion of the hormone cholecystokinin from the duodenal epithelial cells. A and B are α-amylase, lipase, lecithinases, and nucleases.
The bicarbonate released into the duodenum is responsible for regulating (increasing) the pH of gastric emptying and neutralizing acid, and the pH of these digestive substances to the optimum pH for pancreatic enzyme activity (9-7pH =) (7 ← pH → 9). He says.
The peptidase enzymes in the pancreatic milk are pre-enzymatic. Trypsinogen is converted to trypsin by the enzyme entrokinase, which is secreted by twelve epithelial cells. The presence of the enzyme trypsin further increases the rate at which trypsinogen is converted to trypsin. The action of the enzyme trypsin is to break down the peptide bond formed by the carboxylic acid, the lysine and arginine amino acids. Another role of trypsin is to activate chemotrypsinogen and convert it to chemotrypsin. Chemotrypsin breaks down the peptide bonds formed by the carboxylic group of aromatic amino acids (Tyr, Trp, Phe).
Trypsin converts the enzymes proxboxypeptidase to carboxypeptidase. Carboxypeptidase enzymes separate the amino acids from the end of carboxylic polypeptide chains.
The α-amylase enzyme secreted by the pancreas breaks down 4 → 1α bonds between glucose molecules in starch or glycogen and releases glucose.
The enzyme lecithinase is responsible for breaking down the lecithin molecule and isolating a fatty acid molecule.
The nucleic acids in the food are broken down by the enzymes Deoxyribonuclease and Ribonucleas and converted to nucleotides. be.
The walls of the small intestine break down the enzymes of maltose, lactose, and sucrose into their constituent monomers by producing the enzymes maltase, lactase, and sucrose. Lactase is not secreted in the enzyme.
Therefore, the active digestive area in the small intestine is the duodenum. The two parts of the jejunum and the ileum, which are the middle and end parts of the small intestine, are active in absorbing digested nutrients.
The rest of the food that comes out of the small intestine absorbs most of its hydrolyzed material through the intestines. But indigestible parts, such as cellulose and hemicellulose and lignin, and some of the proteins and carbohydrates trapped inside these indigestible parts, especially inside lignin, enter the large intestine.

5 - The large intestine.

The first part of the large intestine is called the appendix (Secum), which has a microbial population, and microbial digestion occurs in single-celled animals, especially horses. Microbial fermentation in the blind intestine of a horse is similar to fermentation in the stomachs of ruminants, and fermentation takes place on cellulose and other indigestible carbohydrates, and the production of fatty acids escapes. But the proteins produced in sequomas are not as absorbable and productive for horses as the proteins produced in ruminant rumen. Some water-soluble vitamins are also created and absorbed by microbial digestion in horse sebum. Secum has no significant activity during the hunt. The small colon, large and rectal colon (Rectim) are the other parts that make up the large intestine that absorb the water remaining in the food.
In the large intestine of monocytes, digested fibrous material is microbial fermentation, and some water-soluble vitamins and vitamin K, and some protein-derived microbial substances are formed that are almost unabsorbable and excreted in the feces. All undigested material, a little water, the body's digestive secretions, cells separated from the gastrointestinal mucosa, and substances from the activity of microbes in the digestive tract make up the stool.
In the esophagus, the length of the large intestine is relatively short, ending in the cloaca, which is the common site of the gastrointestinal, urinary, and genital canals.
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